Synthesis of liquid fuel and value-added chemicals directly from carbon dioxide, the main culprit of greenhouse gas
Mechanical Engineering Prof. KIM, JAEHOON
Dr. Muhammad Kashif Khan, Dr. Malayil Gopalan Sibi, Dr. Deepak Verma, Researcher Heun Tae Cho, Researcher Won Joong Yoon
Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology Professor WON, Hong Hee’s research team, discovers higher career achievements related to lower risk of Alzheimer’s -In cooperation with Samsung AdvancedInstitute for Health Sciences and Technology (Samsung Medical Center) SamsungGenome Institute Research team -The research was published in the internationalacademic journal ‘Brain’ (IF 13.5) [photo] Professor Won Hong Hee, Professor Myung Woo Jae, Researcher Kim So Yeon, Researcher Ko Hyung Woong Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology (Samsung Medical Center) / Samsung Genome Institute Pofessor Won Hong Hee’s research team revealed that higher achievements at work could decrease the risk of Alzheimer’s. The team was joint research with SKKU researcher Kim So Yeon, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital Professor Myung, Woo Jae, and Seoul National University researcher Ko Hyung Woong. Investigating the relationship between educational achievement and Alzheimer's has been constant for a long time. It is well known that higher achievements lead to a lower risk of Alzheimer's.Such protective effects are known as cognitive reserve theory, which includes educational and professional or leisure activities. Professional accomplishment during elderly age requiring long-term cognitive activity is as significant asacademic achievement of early age. However, such topics' precedent research was limited, and genetic study about professional achievement had rarely been tried, implying difficulties extracting precise causal relationships. To certify this hypothesis, the research team conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to 248,847 UK Biobank participants using the phenotype and their genome information according to 9 different occupational classes defined by the standard occupational classification system from UK Office for National Statistics. As a result, 30 genetic mutations related to occupational achievement were found, and 12 of them were newly discovered through this study. In addition, post-GWAS analysis confirmed that most mutations were related to educational achievement, cognitive function, and gene expression in the central nervous system. In particular, through genetic correlation analysis, occupational achievement significantly correlated with various characteristics such as physical health, mental health, social health, and lifestyle. [Research Overview] Relationship between career achievements and Athe risk of Alzheimer's The research team analyzed the causality relationship between professional achievement and Alzheimer’s disease using highly relative to professional achievement and genetic variations for the Mendelian randomization study method. According to the research, as professional achievement increases, the occurrence risk of Alzheimer’s decreases by 22%. Also, by applying the additional multivariate Mendelian random method that revises educational effects that directly and indirectly affect Alzheimer's disease and professional achievement, the protective effect of professional achievement on Alzheimer's disease is confirmed. Researcher Kim So Yeon (Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences M.S and Ph.D. combined) described, "Korea's social and economic burden is increasing due to increase of Alzheimer patients as the elderly population grows. Therefore, it is meaningful that this research suggested an important protective factor of cognitive activity in elderly age to prevent Alzheimer's disease." Professor Won Hong Hee said, “This research is essential since professional achievement is a critical protective factor to Alzheimer’s disease and the discovery of causality between these. Also, the genetic variation investigated in this research will provide crucial proof for researching the biological mechanism of professional achievement." The research was published in the top 5% famous international academic journal in the neuroscience field, ‘Brain (Impact Factor: 13.5). This research is supported by: The Ministry of Science and ICT, Mid-sized Research Support Project for Basic Research Projects promoted by the Korea Research Foundation, Up-and-coming center linkage project, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Research and Development Project of the Korea Health Industry Promotion Agency, Biomedical Global Human Resources Development Project, Ministry of Science and ICT, Information and Communication Industry Promotion Agency.
Professor Soong Ho Um's research team in the School of Chemical Engineering has published the "In vitro functional protein expression using messenger RNA hydrogel" in collaboration with a nucleic acid nanotechnology company, Progeneer incorporation - It makes RNA itself overcome RNA intrinsic limitations such as precise structure formation and stability - It mass-produces the desired functional proteins at low costs within a short period of time - It is published in the top-classified, world-renowned journal, Advanced Materials (IF = 30.849) [Photo] Prof. Soong Ho Um, So Yeon Ahn, Jeonghun Kim (From the left) On April 5th, a research paper titled “Protein-encoding free-standing RNA hydrogel for sub-compartmentalized translation”, written by Professor Soong Ho Um in the School of Chemical Engineering, was published online in the Advanced Materials (IF =30.849) as a cover paper in recognition of its excellence. The research study was conducted in collaboration with Progeneer Inc., a domestic bio-venture company. And the results are expected to be used in various biopharmaceutical fields such as cytokine for several medical uses and personalized new drugs because of the outstanding advantages of being able to produce large amounts of functional proteins in a short time. The team created a new messenger RNA hydrogel structure with physiological and chemical functions by applying the rolling circle transcription and regularly arranging nucleic acid quadruple helical structures based on nucleic acid nanotechnology. It is well known that RNA plays a very pivotal role in the regulation and expression of biological activity in vivo, but it is unstable and not easy to produce the desired design. In a situation where these serious and essential limitations are pointed out, this study suggests a wise solution. The team’s research has proved that the biological regulator role of natural RNAs such as enzyme catalyst action and protein synthesis is actually possible outside of cells through bio-inspiration. This technology has exactly reproduced the ‘Spatiotemporal RNA-derived RNA phase transformation’ that occurs in the translation process of the central dogma process, the central principle of life, and thus enabled protein mass-production through gel internal compartmentalization. Since the 1950s, by “cell-free protein expression” technology, protein production could be done outside the cell. With the rapid development of the modern biopharmaceutical market, this is receiving global attention. This study has also contributed to significantly maximizing the efficiency, which is a fatal disadvantage of cell-free protein expression technology. Also, the gel form of RNA is made possible for the first time and the RNA having the various functions relatively secures the high mechanical property. This suggests the possibility of developing new materials equipped with genetic information. The research’s universal applicability, which solves the fundamental issue of RNA and contributes to the central principle of life, is expected to create various applied technology to pioneer in a new area of research. [Research Overview] Examples of massproduction of functional proteins using RNA hydrogels technology In present, Progeneer CEOs, Chul Kim and Young Ku Lee are directly applying the technology to its personalized anti-cancer vaccine project (ProV-001) and achieving a functional protein synthesis pipeline. Professor Um sad: "This research is highly appraised as the first for human-being designing and producing an "RNA factory" combined with cell-free protein expression technology, establishing the pinnacle of advanced bio-inspiration technology. Usually, all proteins are produced effectively by relying on natural cells, which take a long time. This process requires an expensive production system, but in this study, we prove to mass-produce desired functional proteins within a short time and at a low cost. Many renowned researchers in this field have recognized this research's innovation and industrial availability.This technology's fast development of antibody treatment will lower the actual clinical entry threshold and contribute significantly to the development of patient-specific care. " The research was pulished on line on world-renowned journal "Advanced Materials"(IF=30.849)as cover page on April 5th ※ Research Article title : Protein-encoding Free-standing RNA Hydrogel for Sub-compartmentalized Translation
Investigation of connection between taking tranquilizer benzodiazepine in early stage of pregnancy and teratogenesis of newborn by Research Team of Professor Shin Ju-Young from School of Pharmacy -Confirmed connection between dose of benzodiazepine during early stage of pregnancy and teratogenesis of newborn -Paper published on renowned international medicine journal ‘PLOS Medicine’ [Image] Prof. Ju-Young Shin, Dr. Yoon-Ha Noh, Dr. Hye-Eung Lee, Researcher Ah-Hyung Choi (From the left) SKKU (President Shin Dong-Ryeol) announced that professor Shin Ju-Young’s research team from School of Pharmacy (co-first author: Dr. No Yoon-Ha, Dr. Lee Hye-Sung, co-author: Researcher Choi Ah-Hyung) confirmed dose of benzodiazepine in early stage of pregnancy can increase the risk of newborn teratogenesis through large-scale stability research of pregnant women using domestic health care big data. Benzodiazepine has been widely used for curing or alleviating mental illnesses such as insomnia, anxiety disorder, panic disorder ever since its first sale on market in the 1960s. Domestically, it is also used for neurotic-gastrointestinal or musculoskeletal diseases and according to an OECD report, the domestic elderly benzodiazepine prescription rate is about three times higher than OECD nations average rate. Benzodiazepine not only accumulates in fetal tissue by penetrating through placenta but also gets involved in cell multiplication and differentiation. About 1-2% out of total pregnant women have received prescription of benzodiazepine, meaning that a substantial number of pregnant women are taking it in their early stages of pregnancy. However, despite the drug’s long history and its wide usage, the dosage of benzodiazepine during pregnancy was not proved safe clearly. Thus, the research team conducted joint research with Seoul National University Hospital Neuropsychiatry Professor Kwon Jun-soo and Korea University, College of Medicine, Preventive Medicine Professor Choe Seung-Ah. And to prepare high-quality safety basis of benzodiazepine usage during pregnancy, the research team carried out large scale cohort study of pregnant woman using Health Insurance Claim Data of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Among all the pregnant women who have birth record from 2011 to 2018, the research team compared pregnant woman who took benzodiazepine (exposure group, 40,846) and those who did not (control group, 3,053,831) and the comparison result concluded a correlation that dosage of benzodiazepine increases teratogenesis and cardiac anomaly risks by 1.09 and 1.15 times, accordingly. Especially, overall teratogenesis increases to 1.26 times the original in >2.5mg/day group compared to average daily dosage <1 mg/day group, inferring that more daily average dosage of benzodiazepine can result in higher risk of teratogenesis. Professor Shin Ju-Young asserted, “Taking Benzodiazepine in the early stage of pregnancy significantly increases risk of overall teratogenesis, especially cardiac anomaly, and risks aggravate in high dosage group than that of low dosage group. However, among total teratogenesis, population attributable risk of benzodiazepine is small, 0.36%, implying that benzodiazepine is not the major teratogenic drug. The research team said, “Keep in mind that the research result does not prohibit the use of benzodiazepine in the early stage of pregnancy. This research assesses the risk of the drug and thus it must be evaluated with therapeutic effects as well. But high dosage does appear to have higher risks so if usage of benzodiazepine is inevitable, then minimum effective dose prescription must be prioritized to reduce potential threats on fetus.” This research paper was published on renowned international medicine journal ‘PLOS Medicine (Impact Factor=11.069, JCR ranking Top 5.7%)’, on March 3rd. ※ Paper Title: First-trimester exposure to benzodiazepines and risk of congenital malformations in offspring: A population-based cohort study in South Korea ※ Original Paper: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003945